Gluten-associated diseases have been on the rise in recent years. There are several types of symptoms that patients notice when gluten is consumed. Nevertheless, the question still on the air is: the association of deleterious symptoms that accompanies gluten ingestion is only specific to celiac disease? The answer is no, and here we will explain all about the different organic derangements caused by gluten and their root cause.
Gluten is a mixture of gliadins and glutenins contained in wheat, barley, and rye. Therefore, this complex protein mixture makes it difficult for our digestive enzymes to fully process the compounds, leaving undigested final products on our GI tract. Furthermore, these grains are the main component of wheat-derived and flour products, and they are widely found in common foods consumed around the world.
Several studies have found that the root of glutenâ€™s cytotoxicity is the protein Gliadin. Gliadin provides agglutination activity to gluten-containing grains; it alters redox equilibrium, induces apoptosis, inhibits cell growth, and alters the tight junctionâ€™s integrity. The last described effects are presumed to be the cause of the varied symptoms attributed to gluten ingestion.
There are multiple conditions linked to gluten: Wheat allergy, celiac disease, and gluten hypersensitivity; however, their pathophysiology and effects on the patientâ€™s body differ greatly. Here we present the main differences, information that I think is essential for a patient with antecedents for these conditions.
As food allergy, this condition is an immediate IgE mediated reaction that promotes systemic inflammation with the presence of Th2 cytokines expression (i.e., interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IL-5). Hence, this process could be triggered by the ingestion or inhalation of wheat. The symptoms can be portrayed as asthma, allergic rhinitis, gastrointestinal pain, vomiting, atopic dermatitis, watery eyes, urticaria, and exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
Furthermore, the prevalence of wheat allergy in American children is 3%, determined by a skin prick test (SPT). It is believed that most of the children patients outgrow this condition by the age of 12 years old. Conversely, one of the main factors contributing to wheat allergy is the introduction of wheat after 6 months in the weaning process.
Celiac disease is considered an immune-mediated enteropathy induced by gluten; this disease affects patients that carry the genotype HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8. Nevertheless, the inflammatory process carried with this disease is mediated by an auto-immune response against tissue transglutaminase. In celiac disease, the exacerbated inflammation reaction and elevated cytokines levels cause cryptal hyperplasia and chronic damage to gastrointestinal microvilli.
It is believed that 40% of individuals carry this genotype, but only 2-3% will develop celiac disease. Some of the signs and symptoms of celiac disease manifest as poor childhood growth, malabsorption causing diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal distention, bloating, constipation resulting in weight loss and ultimately affecting children in their longitudinal growth. Likewise, the manifestation of celiac disease can be seen in children’s development and may cause delayed puberty and short stature. In women, there might be an increased risk of miscarriage.
For celiac disease, there are two tests recommended for its diagnosis. Serum IgA antibodies to Tissue transglutaminase and IgG for deaminated gliadin peptides both have good sensitivity and specificity. The genetic HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are useful if the serologic tests need further determination. Besides, biopsies are used to determined cellular changes in the GI tract.
Known also as Nonceliac gluten sensitivity, is a common label to describe a condition caused by intestinal signs and symptoms accompanied by extraintestinal signs and symptoms associated with the ingestion of gluten-containing grains and the later improvement of such symptoms when gluten is taken out of the patientâ€™s diet.
What happens with gluten sensitivity is unknown, and there are no concluding biomarkers that can validate this condition. It has been reported that, besides gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can elucidate a better understanding of the root cause of NCGS. The prevalence of NCGS is unknown, but this condition’s self-reported symptoms are more common than celiac disease and wheat allergy.
The avoidance of gluten-containing products joins the medical management of these conditions. Nutritional advice is to be followed. Knowing how to read labels to avoid gluten and introducing cereals to improve fiber content is essential for the patient. There are many factors affecting the prevalence of these conditions and should be taken into account when trying to diagnose a patient.
- Introducing wheat after 6 months of age.
- Having familiar antecedents with allergy or sensitivity to gluten.
- Intestinal permeability, resulting in a temporary reaction.
- Early weaning, not enough breastfeeding.
It may seem that following a gluten-free diet could be difficult and it doesn’t have to be like that.Â The food industry provides a great variety of gluten-free products, which are a good choice but we need to watch out for more than 5 ingredients. Fortunately, we can achieve a good diet with the help of alternative foods, the more natural the better.
- Rice in every variation, and its products: rice cakes, rice noodles, rice Krispies, rice cereal.
- Sweet potato.
- and if you are not avoiding corn, you can have popcorn, a tortilla in all its variations.
- Products derived from lentils and beans.
- Certified gluten-free oats (watch out for reactions).
I hope this information provides you with a new insight and if you are feeling some of these symptoms after eating gluten, reach out to your Doctor. You can be sure that he will perform the right tests for your diagnosis and ensure the best treatment for you. Lastly, the dietary changes might seem much, but now you know that alternatives are right on the tip of your fingers and they are tasty too.- Ana Paola RodrÃguez Arciniega. MS
Leonard, Maureen M., et al. “Celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity: a review.”Â JamaÂ 318.7 (2017): 647-656.
Zellweger, Fabian, and Alexander Eggel. “IgEâ€associated allergic disorders: recent advances in etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.”Â AllergyÂ 71.12 (2016): 1652-1661.
Cianferoni, Antonella. “Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.”Â Journal of Asthma and AllergyÂ 9 (2016): 13.
Catassi, Carlo, and Alessio Fasano. “Celiac disease.”Â Gluten-free cereal products and beverages. Academic Press, 2008. 1-I.
The information herein on "Gluten-Associated Conditions" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional or licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.
Our information scope is limited to Chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, contributing etiological viscerosomatic disturbances within clinical presentations, associated somatovisceral reflex clinical dynamics, subluxation complexes, sensitive health issues, and/or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions.
We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from various disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and directly or indirectly support our clinical scope of practice.*
Our office has reasonably attempted to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.
We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez, DC, or contact us at 915-850-0900.
We are here to help you and your family.
Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, RN* CIFM*, IFMCP*, ATN*, CCST
My Digital Business Card