The thyroid gland is a large, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck. Although it may seem insignificant in nature, this ductless gland is fundamental for the human body’s overall function. The thyroid gland secretes an essential collection of thyroid hormones which aid in the growth and development of the systems through the rate of metabolism.
What is the purpose of the thyroid gland?
The continuous release of thyroid hormones activate numerous bodily functions, including proper heart and digestive function, muscle control, brain growth and development, bone maintenance and even body temperature.
As important as the thyroid gland is, however, the human body’s own immune system can sometimes attack and damage a healthy thyroid gland, a condition medically referred to as autoimmune thyroid disease. Autoimmune thyroid diseases, or AITD’s, such as Hashimoto’s thyroid disease and Graves’ disease can ultimately alter the overall function of the body. Autoimmune thyroid disease is believed to have no apparent cause, but, research studies have hypothesized that exposure to environmental pollutants and toxins can bring an onset of AITD’s.
Environmental Pollutants and Toxins
The exposure to environmental pollutants and toxins have been previously implicated in the induction of autoimmune thyroid diseases throughout various research studies. Similar studies have also linked AITD’s to other environmental factors, such as iodine intake and selenium deficiency. However, in cases where autoimmune thyroid disease cannot be attributed to diet and nutrition, healthcare professionals have suspected the influence of other environmental factors.
Polyhalogenated biphenyls are commonly used compounds with a variety of applications. Polybrominated biphenyls are flame retardant, and polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCB’s, are used as lubricants, adhesives, inks, and plasticizers. PCB’s are known to accumulate in rivers and lakes and then in the adipose tissue of fish and humans. AITD’s might be triggered by these compounds by interfering with iodide transport, causing oxidative stress. There is proof that thyroid hormone levels in rat pups decrease with exposure to perinatal PCB’s. In adults, adolescents, and children from such areas, the concentration of PCB’s in blood samples negatively correlated with levels of circulating thyroid hormones.
Populations with long-term exposure to PCB’s have increased prevalences of antibodies, which can be linked to the increased effects of these compounds in the environment. Pollutants and toxins from heavy industry and auto emissions, in addition to coal pollution and agricultural fungicides, are also implicated in development of AITD’s.
Smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing Graves’ disease, an autoimmune thyroid disease which causes hyperthyroidism, an overactive thyroid gland, as well as a remission rate after thionamide treatment. Even more striking is the impact of smoking on Graves’ orbitopathy, which tends to become more serious in smokers. Smoking might contribute to the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease by altering the structure of the thyrotropin receptor, making it more immunogenic and causing the creation of thyrotropin antibodies that react with retroorbital tissue.
Smoking increases antigens by cells that are damaged and induces the polyclonal activation of T and B cells. Hypoxia can play a part in Graves’ orbitopathy when cultured under hypoxic conditions because retrobulbar fibroblasts show a significant increase in proliferation and glycosaminoglycan production. The impacts of smoking on thyroid function in fetuses or infants that are 1-year-old offer insight into the interrelationship between smoking and autoimmune thyroid disease. The latter study found that the mothers and fathers of babies whose had higher cord serum levels of Tg and thiocyanate than did infants whose parents did not smoke. The result observed in adolescents exposed to passive smoking could be due to direct stimulation of sympathetic nervous activity from smoking in addition to the increase in thyroid hormone secretion. The association of smoking with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is less well-defined.
In conclusion, various research studies have demonstrated that exposure to environmental pollutants and toxins, including smoking, may have a connection with autoimmune thyroid diseases. While the thyroid gland is virtually an essential part of the function of the human body, it can no doubt be sensitive to environmental factors.
The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic and spinal injuries and conditions. To discuss options on the subject matter, please feel free to ask Dr. Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .
By Dr. Alex Jimenez
Additional Topics: Wellness
Overall health and wellness are essential towards maintaining the proper mental and physical balance in the body. From eating a balanced nutrition as well as exercising and participating in physical activities, to sleeping a healthy amount of time on a regular basis, following the best health and wellness tips can ultimately help maintain overall well-being. Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables can go a long way towards helping people become healthy.
The information herein on "Thyroid Disease, Environmental Pollutants & Toxins | Wellness Clinic" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified healthcare professional or licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional.
Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.* Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. In addition, we provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.
We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.
We are here to help you and your family.