Personal Training 101
How You Get Energy & How You Use It
We usually talk of energy in general terms, as in “I don’t have a lot of energy today” or “You can feel the energy in the room.” But what really is energy? Where do we get the energy to move? How do we use it? How do we get more of it? Ultimately, what controls our movements? The three metabolic energy pathways are the phosphagen system, glycolysis and the aerobic system. How do they work, and what is their effect?
Albert Einstein, in his infinite wisdom, discovered that the total energy of an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the square of the speed of light. His formula for atomic energy, E = mc2, has become the most recognized mathematical formula in the world. According to his equation, any change in the energy of an object causes a change in the mass of that object. The change in energy can come in many forms, including mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, chemical, electrical or nuclear. Energy is all around us. The lights in your home, a microwave, a telephone, the sun; all transmit energy. Even though the solar energy that heats the earth is quite different from the energy used to run up a hill, energy, as the first law of thermodynamics tells us, can be neither created nor destroyed. It is simply changed from one form to another.
The energy for all physical activity comes from the conversion of high-energy phosphates (adenosine triphosphate—ATP) to lower-energy phosphates (adenosine diphosphate—ADP; adenosine monophosphate—AMP; and inorganic phosphate, Pi). During this breakdown (hydrolysis) of ATP, which is a water-requiring process, a proton, energy and heat are produced: ATP + H2O —© ADP + Pi + H+ + energy + heat. Since our muscles don’t store much ATP, we must constantly resynthesize it. The hydrolysis and resynthesis of ATP is thus a circular process—ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and Pi, and then ADP and Pi combine to resynthesize ATP. Alternatively, two ADP molecules can combine to produce ATP and AMP: ADP + ADP —© ATP + AMP.
Like many other animals, humans produce ATP through three metabolic pathways that consist of many enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions: the phosphagen system, glycolysis and the aerobic system. Which pathway your clients use for the primary production of ATP depends on how quickly they need it and how much of it they need. Lifting heavy weights, for instance, requires energy much more quickly than jogging on the treadmill, necessitating the reliance on different energy systems. However, the production of ATP is never achieved by the exclusive use of one energy system, but rather by the coordinated response of all energy systems contributing to different degrees.
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1. Phosphagen System
During short-term, intense activities, a large amount of power needs to be produced by the muscles, creating a high demand for ATP. The phosphagen system (also called the ATP-CP system) is the quickest way to resynthesize ATP (Robergs & Roberts 1997). Creatine phosphate (CP), which is stored in skeletal muscles, donates a phosphate to ADP to produce ATP: ADP + CP —© ATP + C. No carbohydrate or fat is used in this process; the regeneration of ATP comes solely from stored CP. Since this process does not need oxygen to resynthesize ATP, it is anaerobic, or oxygen-independent. As the fastest way to resynthesize ATP, the phosphagen system is the predominant energy system used for all-out exercise lasting up to about 10 seconds. However, since there is a limited amount of stored CP and ATP in skeletal muscles, fatigue occurs rapidly.
Glycolysis is the predominant energy system used for all-out exercise lasting from 30 seconds to about 2 minutes and is the second-fastest way to resynthesize ATP. During glycolysis, carbohydrate—in the form of either blood glucose (sugar) or muscle glycogen (the stored form of glucose)—is broken down through a series of chemical reactions to form pyruvate (glycogen is first broken down into glucose through a process called glycogenolysis). For every molecule of glucose broken down to pyruvate through glycolysis, two molecules of usable ATP are produced (Brooks et al. 2000). Thus, very little energy is produced through this pathway, but the trade-off is that you get the energy quickly. Once pyruvate is formed, it has two fates: conversion to lactate or conversion to a metabolic intermediary molecule called acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which enters the mitochondria for oxidation and the production of more ATP (Robergs & Roberts 1997). Conversion to lactate occurs when the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply (i.e., during anaerobic exercise). Conversely, when there is enough oxygen available to meet the muscles’ needs (i.e., during aerobic exercise), pyruvate (via acetyl-CoA) enters the mitochondria and goes through aerobic metabolism.
When oxygen is not supplied fast enough to meet the muscles’ needs (anaerobic glycolysis), there is an increase in hydrogen ions (which causes the muscle pH to decrease; a condition called acidosis) and other metabolites (ADP, Pi and potassium ions). Acidosis and the accumulation of these other metabolites cause a number of problems inside the muscles, including inhibition of specific enzymes involved in metabolism and muscle contraction, inhibition of the release of calcium (the trigger for muscle contraction) from its storage site in muscles, and interference with the muscles’ electrical charges (Enoka & Stuart 1992; Glaister 2005; McLester 1997). As a result of these changes, muscles lose their ability to contract effectively, and muscle force production and exercise intensity ultimately decrease.
3. Aerobic System
Since humans evolved for aerobic activities (Hochachka, Gunga & Kirsch 1998; Hochachka & Monge 2000), it’s not surprising that the aerobic system, which is dependent on oxygen, is the most complex of the three energy systems. The metabolic reactions that take place in the presence of oxygen are responsible for most of the cellular energy produced by the body. However, aerobic metabolism is the slowest way to resynthesize ATP. Oxygen, as the patriarch of metabolism, knows that it is worth the wait, as it controls the fate of endurance and is the sustenance of life. “I’m oxygen,” it says to the muscle, with more than a hint of superiority. “I can give you a lot of ATP, but you will have to wait for it.”
The aerobic system—which includes the Krebs cycle (also called the citric acid cycle or TCA cycle) and the electron transport chain—uses blood glucose, glycogen and fat as fuels to resynthesize ATP in the mitochondria of muscle cells (see the sidebar “Energy System Characteristics”). Given its location, the aerobic system is also called mitochondrial respiration. When using carbohydrate, glucose and glycogen are first metabolized through glycolysis, with the resulting pyruvate used to form acetyl-CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle. The electrons produced in the Krebs cycle are then transported through the electron transport chain, where ATP and water are produced (a process called oxidative phosphorylation) (Robergs & Roberts 1997). Complete oxidation of glucose via glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain produces 36 molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose broken down (Robergs & Roberts 1997). Thus, the aerobic system produces 18 times more ATP than does anaerobic glycolysis from each glucose molecule.
Fat, which is stored as triglyceride in adipose tissue underneath the skin and within skeletal muscles (called intramuscular triglyceride), is the other major fuel for the aerobic system, and is the largest store of energy in the body. When using fat, triglycerides are first broken down into free fatty acids and glycerol (a process called lipolysis). The free fatty acids, which are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms, are transported to the muscle mitochondria, where the carbon atoms are used to produce acetyl-CoA (a process called beta-oxidation).
Following acetyl-CoA formation, fat metabolism is identical to carbohydrate metabolism, with acetyl-CoA entering the Krebs cycle and the electrons being transported to the electron transport chain to form ATP and water. The oxidation of free fatty acids yields many more ATP molecules than the oxidation of glucose or glycogen. For example, the oxidation of the fatty acid palmitate produces 129 molecules of ATP (Brooks et al. 2000). No wonder clients can sustain an aerobic activity longer than an anaerobic one!
Understanding how energy is produced for physical activity is important when it comes to programming exercise at the proper intensity and duration for your clients. So the next time your clients get done with a workout and think, “I have a lot of energy,” you’ll know exactly where they got it.
Energy System Characteristics
Energy System Workouts
Have clients warm up and cool down before and after each workout.
An effective workout for this system is short, very fast sprints on the treadmill or bike lasting 5–15 seconds with 3–5 minutes of rest between each. The long rest periods allow for complete replenishment of creatine phosphate in the muscles so it can be reused for the next interval.
- 2 sets of 8 x 5 seconds at close to top speed with 3:00 passive rest and 5:00 rest between sets
- 5 x 10 seconds at close to top speed with 3:00–4:00 passive rest
This system can be trained using fast intervals lasting 30 seconds to 2 minutes with an active-recovery period twice as long as the work period (1:2 work-to-rest ratio).
- 8–10 x 30 seconds fast with 1:00 active recovery
- 4 x 1:30 fast with 3:00 active recovery
While the phosphagen system and glycolysis are best trained with intervals, because those metabolic systems are emphasized only during high-intensity activities, the aerobic system can be trained with both continuous exercise and intervals.
- 60 minutes at 70%–75% maximum heart rate
- 15- to 20-minute tempo workout at lactate threshold intensity (about 80%–85% maximum heart rate)
- 5 x 3:00 at 95%–100% maximum heart rate with 3:00 active recovery
Brooks, G.A., et al. 2000. Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications.Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Enoka, R.M., & Stuart, D.G. 1992. Neurobiology of muscle fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology, 72 (5), 1631–48.
Glaister, M. 2005. Multiple sprint work: Physiological responses, mechanisms of fatigue and the influence of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine, 35 (9), 757–77.
Hochachka, P.W., Gunga, H.C., & Kirsch, K. 1998. Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 1915–20.
Hochachka, P.W., & Monge, C. 2000. Evolution of human hypoxia tolerance physiology. Advances in Experimental and Medical Biology, 475, 25–43.
McLester, J.R. 1997. Muscle contraction and fatigue: The role of adenosine 5′-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate. Sports Medicine, 23 (5), 287–305.
Robergs, R.A. & Roberts, S.O. 1997. Exercise Physiology: Exercise, Performance, and Clinical Applications. Boston: William C. Brown.
These canons of professional ethics are based upon fundamental principles of moral and professional behavior and recommended for all doctors of chiropractic and chiropractic assistants. The following basic principles should be guiding factors in the practice of chiropractic and upheld at all times:
Consider the well-being of the patient. The primary effort and ultimate goal is for the greatest good of our patients.
- Dr. Alexander D. Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.TChief Clinical DirectorPhone: 9155408444Email: email@example.comSpecializing in Severe Pain: Sciatica, Neck-Back Pain, Whiplash, Headaches, Knee Injuries, Sport Injuries, Dizziness, Poor Sleep, Arthritis. We use advanced proven therapies focused on optimal mobility, health, fitness, and structural conditioning. We use Patient Focused Diet Plans, Specialized Chiropractic Techniques, Mobility-Agility Training, Cross-Fit Protocols and the "PUSH System" to treat patients suffering from various injuries and health problems.
Message from: Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T
( Biography and my promise to you )
My name is Dr. Alex Jimenez, I am Chiropractic Doctor specializing in advanced therapies focused on total joint health, strength training and complete fitness conditioning. We use patient Focused Diet Plans, Advanced Chiropractic Techniques, Agility Training, Cross-Fit and the PUSH System to treat patients suffering from various injuries and health problems. Our goal too is to help your body heal itself naturally. When your body is truly healthy, you will arrive at your fitness level and proper weight efforlessly. We want to help educate you on how to live a new and improved lifestyle. Our doctors have spent over 25+ years researching and testing methods with thousands of patients. We strive to create fitness and better the body through researched methods and total programs...
My goal too is to help the body heal itself naturally. When your body is truly healthy and balanced, you will move pain free and ultimatly arrive at your optimal fitness levels and proper weight effortlessly. We want to help educate you on how to live a new and improved lifestyle. Our doctors have spent over 25 years researching and testing methods with thousands of patients. We strive to create fitness and better the body through researched methods and total programs. These programs are natural, and use the body's own ability to achieve goals of improvement, rather than introducing harmful chemicals, controversial hormone replacement, surgery, or addictive drugs. We want you to live a life that is fulfilled with more energy, positive attitude, better sleep, less pain, proper body weight and educated on how to maintain this way of life.
The focus on spinal and skeletal adjustments is what makes doctors of chiropractic unique in their approach to treating patients with spinal complaints. This hallmark chiropractic adjustment, however, is not the only procedure a chiropractor may employ in managing a patient's care. I am very proud to bring my patients a variety of treatment options beyond the typical scope of care. With the advances in physical therapies and modalities we bring El Paso option that better aid in the rehabilitation process. Tissue healing is a wonderful process that begins the moment an injury occurs. How the injury is managed determine the final outcome in terms of healing. It is critical we implement immediate procedures as soon as we can in order to gain optimal recovery. The old day of let it rest until it gets better is not the only option.
Letting it rest may even be an irresponsible approach considering what we now know. The implementation of active and movement based treatments have clearly shown increased and improved outcomes in many instances.
As a doctors focused on the greater good for a patient, we must assess each patient individually and apply the appropriate protocols. It is also very important to denote, that El Paso has fine doctors in many specialties of healing and repair. The direct relationship we have with specialist of these disciplines is clearly what allows us to bring the highest quality of care to our patients.
My promise to my patients is clear for all to read here. I, with Gods help, will do what ever it takes to assist you in your recovery. I too will draw upon all the specialist in this town to find you the collaborative care that is required with the disorders being tended to.
With Great Regards to you.Read moreRead lessEducation:
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Truide has been working for the past 20 years in claims resolutions. She works hand in hand with patients and is availible to resolve dispute resolutions.
Truide Torres (Bio)
Driven by the passion of doing what is in the best interest of the patient, I wake up every morning with the drive to help those in need. The claims process for health care is full of pits, valleys and difficult obstacles designed to strike fear in those in need. My duty is to do what is within the confines of the law, "what ever it takes" to get those involved to pay attention to those who need help. That is what I am honored to do for our patients.
Personally, I have seen great injustices transpire on those that do NOT have a voice. Whether, a language barrier or just not knowing the rules. My job is to find out how I can help. If I personally can not help, I will find the right sources to open the possibilities. I get the job done.
As a wife and mother of 2 children, 3 dogs and 2 Cats. My passion is for God, Family and the mission of serving my fellow man.
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- Sandra MartinezHead Clinical TherapistPhone: 915-850-0900Email: email@example.comSandra has been working at Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic for over 5 years. As the head Licensed Massage Therapist, she manages and directs critical aspect of clinical care. The patients love her ability to make you laugh while removing those pesky trigger points causing pain. She is able to relax and bring comfort to all she touches. There just simply is no patient that escapes her talented touch. Trained in advance myofascial techniques, she is an integral part of patient recovery. You will never see anything but a kind smile and resolute persona ready to correct your condition and aid in your recovery. She definitely enjoys helping people, has 1 dog and loves movies. She loves flowers too.Read moreRead less
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- Mike ContrerasPersonal TrainerPhone: 915-203-8122Big Mike was born and raised in El Paso and is an excellent personal trainer and CrossFit coach. Mike works hand in hand with each patient’s clinical care plan in order to achieve optimal outcomes. A trusted clinical representative of the PUSHasRx System along with his advance protocols. Mike not only trains the injured and recovering. Mike is a sincere human that has great talent of brining out the best in every individual he works with. He will never admit it, but we will share with you a secret. He with his God given talents trains the greatest athletes and champions in El Paso. Many champions in our community know of his commitment. As a youth, he also played football (wide receiver), basketball, and track at Bel Air High School. Educated in Clinical Human Kinesiology at UTEP and loves playing football and basketball with his little nephews in his free time. Mike has three sisters and one brother, most of which live nearby in El Paso. When he’s not watching the Cowboys or Spurs play, he’s usually lifting, sleeping or watching movies. We are blessed to have this soul on our team.Read moreRead less
- Alexander Isaiah JimenezCollegiate Athletic Consultant & NCAA Wrestling ChampionPhone: 915-820-9443Email: email@example.comAlexander Isaiah Jimenez leads the power and agility education programs for the high school athletes. While still studying for his medical degree he provides physical performance testing in order to collaborate with clinicians. He is gifted in creating physical performance programs no matter what the clinical presentation is. As national fitness champion and collegiate wrestler, he too understands what performing at high levels entails. He too has had to recover from debilitating injuries only to return better then before an win national titles. He understand how the recovery process is different for clients, patients and extreme athletes. We are blessed to have his counsel.Read moreRead less
- Ethan PadillaPersonal Trainer & Strength CoachPhone: 915-203-8122Ethan was born and raised in El Paso and is one of our most outgoing and friendly coaches. Ethan earned his nickname “rampage Ethan” from his years at El Dorado High School, where he played inside linebacker. He has placed twice in the Strongman Competition and also recently competed in the Desert Games with his fellow PUSH Athletes as a team and placed 4th overall! Ethan is currently pursuing his Bachelor’s Degree in Kinesiology at UTEP. His focus on clients is obvious to all. Ethan is able to manage very large groups of individuals like no other. His awareness of the dangers while exercising is his greatest concern. When he’s not coaching or studying for class, he likes to spend time with his family (who are here in El Paso) or with his weimaraner puppy. Fun fact: Ethan loves any food with sprinkles (especially donuts with sprinkles) and is a diehard Seattle Seahawks fan.Read moreRead less
- AndresRecovery & NutritionAndres has been at PUSHasRx for two years. He brought his company Recovery and became the official juicer. Andy will fix you right up. Andres, will make sure that your nutritional recovery programs fits within your standards. Also, there is great care in making sure the nutritional requirement are clinically met. Patients and high performance athletes depend on high performance nutritions. Upon your completion of the physical medicine portion of therapy you will be offered specialized organic recovery drinks and supplementation to help aid in your recovery. You will be confident that from your pushing to recovery, you will be taken care of.Read moreRead less
- Iylene AvalosPUSHasRx TrainerPhone: 915-203-8122ylene has been working with us for over 4 years. In her spare time she enjoys working out and running. She has 2 dogs and loves movies. Iylene is extremely aware of body mechanics and mindfully watches rehabilitation movements. She is always standing ready to assist and respond to client needs. Her commanding voice is always clear to all, no matter what floor you are on. Iylene is always ready and willing to answer any question you may have regarding fitness and recovery.Read moreRead less
- Rick CanoPersonal Trainier Level VPhone: 915-203-8122Most early-rising PUSHasRx members know Rick well as a fantastic coach who focuses strongly on form and will always make you laugh. He was born and raised in El Paso and loves to train his athletes and coach CrossFit. Rick is a very diligent, kind and considerate trainer. He is always mindful of client techniques and aware of client goals. When he’s not coaching, Rick loves to work on cars, especially his ’69 Chevelle (his next car will hopefully be a ’69 Charger). He not only became a certified Automotive Mechanic at 17, but while working on his certification at EPCC, he won 1st place in a bench competition when he was 16 (approx. 56 reps at 155#). His favorite movements are clean & jerks and snatches. He loves oreos (eats them every night), loves watching the CrossFit games, and loves his three bulldogs. He spent one year full-time personal training before he started coaching CrossFit two years ago. He is CrossFit Level 1 Certified and hopes to get his Level 2 Certification soon. Rick has competed in several competitions, including WOD for Toys in 2014, where his team placed 1st.Read moreRead less
- Astrid OrnelasBlogger/Research/CuratorPhone: 915-850-0900Astrid has been at Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic for about three years. Astrid has taken her love for writing to an new level. She is a gifted and talented copywriter able to create amazing storylines. She creates content for patient consumption. She is able to bring words to life in a way that perplexes even the elite authors of the day. She loves nutrition and the healing power of clean eating. A naturalist at heart you will never see her eating processed foods that would be contra to clean living. She enjoys movies and creating storylines for Anime.Read moreRead less
- AdamVideographer & Graphics SpecialistPhone: 915-850-0900Adam has been at Injury Medical & Chiropractic Clinic for about a year. He enjoys designing and various forms of art. A story teller by trade he can see things people don’t see until his masterpieces are revealed. Adam is a director of many medias using the top graphics, audio and video medias to tell the story of our patient. Modest to the core, you would never know what he is about to create. We are blessed to have his talents telling the world about Chiropractic using any and all medias available.Read moreRead less
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Purpose & Passions: I am a Doctor of Chiropractic specializing in progressive cutting-edge therapies and functional rehabilitation procedures focused on clinical physiology, total health, functional strength training and complete conditioning. We focus on restoring normal body functions after neck, back, spinal and soft tissue injuries.
We use Specialized Chiropractic Techniques, Balanced Diet Plans, Agility Training programs, Cross-Fit techniques, the PUSH-Rx Rehabilitation System and a highly specialized program for our Veterans.
We've been blessed to use our methods with thousand of El Pasoans over the last 27 years. This has allowed us to improve health and restore true fitness through researched non-surgical methods and wellness programs. These programs are natural and use the body's own ability to achieve goals of improvement, rather than introducing harmful chemicals, controversial hormone replacement, surgery, or addictive drugs. We want you to live a life that is fulfilled with more energy, positive attitude, better sleep, less pain, proper body weight and informed on how to maintain this way of life.
As an extension to dynamic rehabilitation, we too offer our patients, disabled veterans, athletes, young and elder a diverse portfolio of strength equipment, high performance exercises and advanced agility options. We are very proud to have teamed up with the cities premier therapist and trainers in order to provide high level competitive athletes the option to push themselves to their highest abilities within our facility.
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