Dr. Alex Jimenez, El Paso's Chiropractor
I hope you have enjoyed our blog posts on various health, nutritional and injury related topics. Please don't hesitate in calling us or myself if you have questions when the need to seek care arises. Call the office or myself. Office 915-850-0900 - Cell 915-540-8444 Great Regards. Dr. J

Cerebrovascular Disorders

Cerebrovascular disease is a designated group of conditions that can lead to cerebrovascular event/s, i.e. stroke. These events affect the blood supply and vessels to the brain. With a blockage, malformation, or hemorrhage happens, this prevents brain cells from getting enough oxygen, which can cause brain damage. Cerebrovascular diseases can develop in different ways. These include deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and atherosclerosis.

Types of cerebrovascular disease: Stroke, transient ischemic attack, aneurysms, and vascular malformations

In the U.S. cerebrovascular disease is the fifth most common cause of death.

Cerebrovascular Disorders

The Brain

  • Makes up ~2% of the body weight
  • Accounts for ~10% of the body’s oxygen use
  • Accounts for ~20% of the body’s glucose use
  • Receives ~20% of the cardiac output
  • Per minute, requires ~50-80cc of blood per 100g of grey matter brain tissue and ~17-40cc of blood per 100g of white matter
  • If blood supply to the brain is <15cc per 100g of tissue, per minute, neurologic dysfunction occurs
  • As with all tissues, the longer there is ischemia, the more likely there is to be cell death and necrosis
  • The brain depends on a constant, uninterrupted supply of oxygen and glucose
  • 3-8 minutes of cardiac arrest can result in irreversible brain damage!

cerebrovascular el paso tx.Autoregulation In The Brain

  • Systemic hypotension causes reactive cerebral vasodilation to allow more blood flow to the brain
  • The brain can extract enough oxygen from the brain if systolic pressure is 50 mmHg
  • Atherosclerotic narrowing can produce reactive vasodilation to attempt to reduce excess pressure
  • Increased blood pressure can result in vasoconstriction, reducing likelihood of hemorrhage
  • If systolic pressure averages >150 mmHg for prolonged periods, this compensation may fail
  • Labelled hypertensive encephalopathy

Blood Supply To The Head

cerebrovascular el paso tx.http://madeinkibera.com/lingual-arterie-anatomie

Collateral Circulation

  • In slowly developing occlusion such as atherosclerotic thrombosis, collateral circulation has time to develop
  • Circle of Willis connects the carotid and basilar systems
  • Anterior and posterior communicating arteries provide collateral supply
  • Anastomoses between main cerebral and cerebellar arteries in some people
  • Internal and external carotid artery connection via the ophthalmic & maxillary arteries

Circle Of Willis

  • Connects the vertebrobasilar system with the internal carotid system
  • While providing helpful collateral circulation, is also the most susceptible area to Berry Aneurysms which can lead to hemorrhagic stroke

cerebrovascular el paso tx.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle_of_Willis

Blood Supply To The Brain

cerebrovascular el paso tx.http://teachmeanatomy.info/neuro/vessels/arterial-supply/

Maxillary & Ophthalmic aa.

cerebrovascular el paso tx.

cerebrovascular el paso tx.

Supratrochlear artery

Cerebrovascular Disorders

  • ~700,000 adults in the US have a stroke each year
  • Third most common cause of death in the US
  • ~2 million people are disabled due to stroke
  • By far more common in persons of advanced age
  • Occlusive/Ischemic Disease
  • 80% of all strokes
  • Most common site of occlusion is at the internal carotid artery just above the bifurcation of the common carotid a.
  • Atherothrombotic
  • Embolic
  • Small vessel
  • Hemorrhagic Disease

Occlusive/Ischemic Stroke

  • Can be due to artery OR vein occlusion
  • Artery occlusion is much more common
  • Due to lack of blood & oxygen supply reaching a particular area of the brain
  • Sudden onset of neurologic deficits, correlating to the distribution of a specific artery
  • Deficits will differ depend on which artery’s distribution has been disrupted

Venous Occlusion

  • Hyperviscocity
  • Dehydration
  • Thombocytosis
  • Elevated red or white blood cells counts
  • Polycythemia
  • Hypercoagulability
  • Elevated homocysteine
  • Prolonged immobility or airplane travel
  • Genetic clotting factor disorders
  • Pregnancy
  • Cancer
  • Hormone replacement & OCP use


  • Neurologic deficits may be transient or develop slowly over time
  • Possible causes/types:
  • Dissection of the tunica intima and tunica adventitia
  • Can occur in younger patients with connective tissue disorders
  • Inflammatory materials deposit & build up in the vessel walls
  • Oxidized LDLs deposit in vessel walls


  • Neurologic deficits likely to have sudden onset
  • Dislodged tissue from dissection of the tunica intima and tunica adventitia
  • Any dislodged thrombus can become an embolus blocking/closing the lumen of smaller vessels

Small Vessel

  • Lipohyalinosis
  • Vessel wall micro-trauma & ballooning
  • Amyloid Angiopathy
  • Accumulation of amyloid proteins in vessel walls
  • More common in patients >65 years old
  • Causes narrowing (leading to ischemia) but can also cause vessel fragility (leading to hemorrhage)
  • Associated with Alzheimer’s disease
  • Inflammatory
  • Spasmotic

Risk Factors For Occlusive Stroke

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Cardiac abnormalities
  • Right-left shunts (Patent foramen ovale, VSD, tetralogy of fallot, etc)
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Valve disease/artificial heart valves
  • Advanced age
  • Obesity
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Especially high LDL and low HDL
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Cigarette/Tobacco smoking
  • High oxidation status
  • Elevated homocysteine
  • Contributed to by low folic acid, B6 & B12 statuses
  • Interacts with LDL cholesterol
  • Hyperviscocity and hypercoagulability states as shown on previous slide

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

  • Fully reversible episodes of neurologic deficit due to vascular insufficiency generally lasting no more than 30 minutes at a time
  • Occasionally can last 24 hours or more
  • Half of patients who suffer from a complete occlusive stroke previously had transient ischemic attack(s)
  • 20-40% of patients with TIA go on to have complete stroke
  • In is important to identify patients with TIAs to that they can be appropriately managed and modifiable risk factors reduced

History of Transient Neurologic Deficit In Patient > 45 y/o

  • DDx
  • TIA most likely dx
  • Migraine
  • Focal seizures
  • BPPV
  • Meniere’s
  • Demyelinating diseases
  • Temporal arteritis
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Tumor
  • Arteriovenous malformations

Carotid Artery Disease

  • High pitched systolic bruit heard over the carotid artery may indicate carotid stenosis
  • Requires duplex ultrasound evaluation
  • Lesions narrowing the lumen >70% can possibly cause ischemia
  • Many carotid occlusions do not cause ischemia due to slow development allowing for collateral circulation to be developed as well
  • Fast forming occlusions or emboli can produce problems with <70% stenosis
  • Surgical intervention should be considered for patients with >70% stenosis and symptoms of TIA

Occlusive Stroke

  • If there is an onset of definitive substantial neurologic deficit, the patient should have a CT to rule out hemorrhage
  • If hemorrhage is ruled out, tissue plasminogen activator should be given within the first 4.5 hours
  • It should not be given later than this because it can increase risk of bleeding during reperfusion of brain tissue
  • After this initial period, focused thrombolysis or mechanical extraction of the embolus

Intracranial Hemorrhage

  • Approximately 20% of stroke cases
  • Severe HA or vomiting suggest hemorrhage over occlusion
  • Two types
  • Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage
  • Hypertension
  • Arterial aneurysms
  • Arteriovenous malformations
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Vessel weakening due to amyloid angiopathy
  • Traumatic

Aneurysm Sites

  • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
  • 50% – Lenticulostriate branches of the middle cerebral artery
  • Affects the putamen and external capsule
  • 10% – Penetrating branches of the posterior cerebral artery
  • Affects the thalamus
  • 10% – Penetrating branches of the superior cerebellar artery
  • Affects the cerebellum
  • 10% – Paramedian branches of the basilar artery
  • Affects the basilar pons
  • 20% – Various vessels affecting areas of white matter
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Berry aneurysms at communicating artery junctions

Bleeding Disorders

  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Leukemia
  • Excess anticoagulant therapies

Risk Factors For Hemorrhagic Stroke

  • Hypertension
  • Arterial aneurysms
  • Arteriovenous malformations
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Vessel weakening due to amyloid angiopathy
  • Head trauma

Signs Of Stroke: Teach Patients F.A.S.T

cerebrovascular el paso tx.http://chrcsf.org/expert-tips-to-help-with-detecting-the-early-signs-of-stroke/

Common Transient Symptoms

  • Vertigo
  • Bilateral blurring or loss of vision
  • Ataxia
  • Diplopia
  • Bilateral or unilateral sensory and motor deficits
  • Syncope
  • Weakness in the distribution of a motor cranial nerve one side of the head with a contralateral hemiparesis (medial brainstem damage)
  • Damage to a sensory cranial nerve & Horner’s syndrome on one side of the head and loss of contralateral pain and temperature sensation in the body (lateral brainstem damage)

Long-Term Symptoms Depend On Area Affected

  • Monocular visual obscuration (amaurosis fugax) that is due to retinal ischemia
  • Contralateral hemiparesis
  • Hemisensory deficit
  • Visual field deficits
  • Dysphasia
  • Receptive aphasia (Wernicke’s area lesion)
  • Expressive aphasia (Broca’s areas lesion)
  • Contralateral neglect (on-dominant parietal lobe lesion)
  • Problemswithinitiationofmovement(Supplementarymotorcortex lesion)
  • Difficulty with voluntary gaze to the contralateral side (Frontal eye field lesions)
  • Short-term memory deficits(medial temporal lobes lesioned)

Brain-Stem Syndromes

cerebrovascular el paso tx.http://roho.4senses.co/stroke- syndromes/common-stroke- syndromes-chapter-9-textbook-of- stroke-medicine.html

Stroke Recovery

  • Rehab needs depend upon the area of brain tissue that was affected by the stroke
  • Speech therapy
  • Restriction of functioning limbs
  • Balance and gait exercises
  • Encourages neuroplastic restructuring
  • Symptoms may improve within the first 5 days due to reduction in edema
  • Edema may cause herniation through the foramen magnum which can cause brainstem compression and death – patients with this problem may require craniectomy (last resort)


Alexander G. Reeves, A. & Swenson, R. Disorders of the Nervous System. Dartmouth, 2004.
Swenson, R. Cerebrovascular Disorders. 2010

Comments are closed.

PUSH-as-Rx ®™ Beyond Rehabilitation For All - No Matter The Age

Functional Rehabilitation El Paso Chiropractor
Injury & Functional Fitness Rehabiliation Center: Taking Functional Recovery To A New Level - No Matter Age or Impairment.

Again,  We Welcome You 👊🏻.

Our Purpose & Passions: I am a Doctor of Chiropractic specializing in progressive, cutting-edge therapies and functional rehabilitation procedures focused on clinical physiology, total health, practical strength training, and complete conditioning. We focus on restoring normal body functions after neck, back, spinal, and soft tissue injuries.

We use Specialized Chiropractic Protocols, Wellness Programs, Functional & Integrative Nutrition, Agility & Mobility Fitness Training and Rehabilitation Systems for all ages.

As an extension to effective rehabilitation, we too offer our patients, disabled veterans, athletes, young and elder a diverse portfolio of strength equipment, high-performance exercises, and advanced agility treatment options. We have teamed up with the cities premier doctors, therapists and trainers to provide high-level competitive athletes the possibilities to push themselves to their highest abilities within our facilities.

We’ve been blessed to use our methods with thousands of El Pasoans over the last three decades allowing us to restore our patients’ health and fitness while implementing researched non-surgical methods and functional wellness programs.

Our programs are natural and use the body’s ability to achieve specific measured goals, rather than introducing harmful chemicals, controversial hormone replacement, un-wanted surgeries, or addictive drugs. We want you to live a functional life that is fulfilled with more energy, a positive attitude, better sleep, and less pain. Our goal is to ultimately empower our patients to maintain the healthiest way of living.

With a bit of work, we can achieve optimal health together, no matter the age or disability.

Join us in improving your health for you and your family.

It’s all about: LIVING, LOVING & MATTERING! 🍎

Welcome & God Bless


6440 Gateway East, Ste B
Phone: 915-850-0900

East Side:
11860 Vista Del Sol, Ste 128
Phone: 915-412-6677

Clinic Location 1

Address: 11860 Vista Del Sol Dr Suite 128
El Paso, TX 79936
Phone: (915) 412-6677
Email: Send Email
Web: www.DrAlexJimenez.com

Clinic Location 2

Address: 6440 Gateway East, Building B
El Paso, TX 79905
Phone: (915) 850-0900
Email: Send Email
Web: www.ElPasoBackClinic.com

Clinic Location 3

Address: 1700 N Zaragoza Rd # 117
El Paso, TX 79936
Phone: (915) 850-0900
Email: Send Email
Web: www.ChiropracticScientist.com

Push As Rx Crossfit & Rehab

Address: 6440 Gateway East, Building B
El Paso, TX 79905
Phone: (915) 412-6677
Email: Send Email
Web: www.PushAsRx.com

Push 24/7

Address: 1700 E Cliff Dr
El Paso, TX 79902
Phone: (915) 412-6677
Email: Send Email
Web: www.PushAsRx.com

EVENTS REGISTRATION:  Live Events & Webinars – Sign Up Today ❗️

Additional Online Links & Resources (Available 24/7)

  1. Online Appointments or Consultations:  https://bit.ly/Book-Online-Appointment
  2. Online Physical Injury / Accident Intake Form: https://bit.ly/Fill-Out-Your-Online-History
  3. Online Functional Medicine Assessment: https://bit.ly/functionmed


The information herein is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional. Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the musculoskeletal system’s injuries or disorders. Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.* Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request. We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 Read More…

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, CTG*

email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com
phone: 915-850-0900
Licensed in Texas & New Mexico

Online History 24/7
Book Online Chiropractor
English EN Spanish ES